Kalibangan is an archaeological site located in the Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan, India. It is one of the major Indus Valley Civilization sites in the country and was discovered by Italian archaeologist Luigi Pio Tessitori in 1916. The site was later excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in the early 1960s and 70s, revealing important information about the Indus Valley Civilization.

The name Kalibangan means “black bangles,” which were found in large quantities at the site. The site dates back to the early Harappan period, around 3500 BCE, and continued to be occupied until the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BCE. The site covers an area of approximately 10 hectares and consists of two mounds – the smaller one is believed to have been used for burials, while the larger one was the main settlement.

Excavations at Kalibangan have uncovered a range of artifacts, including pottery, jewelry, and tools made of stone, bone, and copper. The site also features a well-planned drainage system, which suggests that the residents had a good understanding of urban planning and public health. The site also contains a granary, which was a common feature of Indus Valley Civilization settlements and suggests that the residents were involved in agriculture.

One of the most significant findings at Kalibangan is a plow field, which is believed to be the earliest evidence of plowing in the Indian subcontinent. The plow was a crucial agricultural tool that allowed farmers to cultivate more land and increase crop yields. The discovery of the plow field suggests that the residents of Kalibangan were highly advanced in their agricultural practices.

The ASI has also uncovered evidence of a defensive wall around the settlement, which suggests that the residents were concerned about security. The wall was made of mud bricks and had a width of approximately 6 meters, which made it difficult for intruders to breach.


Today, Kalibangan is a popular tourist attraction in Rajasthan, with many visitors coming to see the excavated remains of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization settlement. The site has been preserved by the ASI and features a small museum where visitors can see some of the artifacts that have been uncovered at the site.

Conclusion || Kalibangan

In conclusion, Kalibangan is a significant archaeological site in India, providing valuable insight into the culture and way of life of the Indus Valley Civilization. The site is a must-visit for anyone interested in Indian history and is a testament to the remarkable achievements of the people who lived in the area over 4,000 years ago.

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